Appleyard Lees


The use of antibodies in biotechnological devices first became a reality in the 1960s and 70s with the development of a diagnostic test for insulin levels. Since then, antibody based tests and assays have become commonplace in the laboratory and home environment with ELISAs and lateral flow methods dominating the field. More recently, antibodies and other immunomodulators such as cytokines and chemokines have become a key part of immunotherapy, providing enhancement or suppression of the body’s innate immune system to treat diseases such as cancer.

Appleyard Lees has a number of attorneys with experience of working in immunological research, in particular the cytokine and chemokine expression in mammals under disease conditions. Furthermore, we have worked with clients developing immunoassays, synthetic antibody therapies and receptors, vaccines, improvements in devices such as columns or membranes, and enzyme-antibody conjugates.

Exciting developments in patents include the development of synthetic antibodies comprising the ability to act as enzymes, the use of genetically engineered T cells with specific reactivity against diseased cells, and the use of microorganisms such as helminths to modify the immune response of the body.